By that law of our nature which makes food necessary to the life of man, the effects of these two unequal powers must be kept equal.
Update this section! Everything springs from this thesis: unless population growth can be checked, the inevitability of an inability to grow enough food to feed everyone is unavoidable.Chapter XIV, paragraph 9 Had population and food increased in the same ratio, it is probable that man might never have emerged from the savage state. Malthus believed in artificially limiting population, but found that it could not be done by talking. But should they fail in this war of extermination, sickly seasons, epidemics, pestilence, and plague, advance in terrific array, and sweep off their thousands and ten thousands. If the calculation of these two ratios is correct and it is a given that production of food can never keep up with production of people, that means there is only one other option. Every reduction of capital is therefore necessarily followed by a less effective demand for corn, by a fall in price, and by a diminished cultivation. Malthus This quote is, in effect, the entire essay boiled down to its essential. From the effects of disease the most healthy escaped; from enemies, the strongest, swiftest, or the most cunning; from famine, the best hunters or those with the best digestion; and so on. Their present wants employ their whole whole attention, and they seldom think of the future. The error does not seem to lie in supposing a small degree of improvement possible, but in not discriminating between a small improvement, the limit of which is undefined, and an improvement really unlimited. There is, however, in spite of the strenuous exertions of the humane bourgeoisie, no immediate prospect of its succeeding in bringing about such a disposition among the workers. The finest minds seem to be formed rather by efforts at original thinking, by endeavours to form new combinations, and to discover new truths, than by passively receiving the impressions of other men's ideas. There must therefore be a considerable class of persons who have both the will and power to consume more material wealth then they produce, or the mercantile classes could not continue profitably to produce so much more than they consume.
Chapter VII, paragraph 20, lines With regard to the duration of human life, there does not appear to have existed from the earliest ages of the world to the present moment the smallest permanent symptom or indication of increasing prolongation.
Chapter XIV, paragraph 9 Had population and food increased in the same ratio, it is probable that man might never have emerged from the savage state.
The answer was clearly, that on the whole the best fitted live. In the country, we should build our villages near stagnant pools, and particularly encourage settlements in all marshy and unwholesome situations.
Chapter I, paragraph 9, lines Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometrical ratio, Subsistence, increases only in an arithmetical ratio. The perpetual tendency of the race of man to increase beyond the means of subsistence is one of the general laws of animated nature, which we can have no reason to expect to change.
If the calculation of these two ratios is correct and it is a given that production of food can never keep up with production of people, that means there is only one other option. However, Wallace did not publish anything on his use of the expression until very much later, and his recollection is likely flawed.There must therefore be a considerable class of persons who have both the will and power to consume more material wealth then they produce, or the mercantile classes could not continue profitably to produce so much more than they consume. Chapter IX, paragraph 14, lines see also eugenics Man cannot live in the midst of plenty. Book I, Introduction, p. The workers have taken it into their heads that they, with their busy hands, are the necessary, and the rich capitalists, who do nothing, the surplus population. A slight acquaintance with numbers will shew the immensity of the first power in comparison of the second. Chapter XIX, paragraph 2, lines Evil exists in the world not to create despair but activity. The perpetual tendency of the race of man to increase beyond the means of subsistence is one of the general laws of animated nature, which we can have no reason to expect to change. Chapter XIII, paragraph 2, lines The lower classes of people in Europe may at some future period be much better instructed then they are at present; they may be taught to employ the little spare time they have in many better ways than at the ale-house; they may live under better and more equal laws than they have hitherto done, perhaps, in any country; and I even conceive it possible, though not probable, that they may have more leisure; but it is not in the nature of things, that they can be awarded such a quantity of money or substance, as will allow them all to marry early, in the full confidence that they shall be able to provide with ease for a numerous family. The immediate cause of the increase of population is the excess of the births above deaths; and the rate of increase, or the period of doubling, depends upon the proportion which the excess of the births above the deaths bears to the population. Friedrich Engels , The Condition of the Working Class in England If, then, the problem is not to make the 'surplus population' useful, There is, however, only passing reference to Hindustan in his great Essay on The Principle of Population. In our towns we should make the streets narrower, crowd more people into the houses, and court the return of the plague. Chapter I, paragraph 9, lines Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometrical ratio, Subsistence, increases only in an arithmetical ratio. Update this section!
The main peculiarity which distinguishes man from other animals, is the means of his support, is the power which he possesses of very greatly increasing these means.
The power of population is so superior to the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race. Chapter IX, paragraph 7, lines Though I may not be able to in the present instance to mark the limit at which further improvement will stop, I can very easily mention a point at which it will not arrive.
There is not at present enough for all to have a decent share.